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Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) utilize solid-state lighting technology to produce light through solid matter, essentially a semiconductor. This sets them apart from other light sources such as incandescent bulbs (through a vacuum) or compact fluorescent bulbs (through gas). The fundamental mechanism of light production runs on Band-to-Band recombination or radiation.
The current running through LEDs only moves in a single direction. Electrons from one end race toward the positively charged holes found on the opposite end when electricity passes through the semiconductor. Light is produced when the electrons interact with the holes.
Common examples of LED lighting include miniature LEDs (ready-to-fit units that can be fitted straight onto a circuit board such as phone signalers), High Power (units with a strong glow, such as LED strips), and Application Specific (such as billboards).